Note: Unless otherwise specified, only S. I. Units are to be used while teaching and learning, as well as for answering questions.

### 1. Force, Work, Energy and Power

(i) Newton's Second Law of Motion (including F=ma) and its experimental verification; weight and mass.
(ii) Machines as force multipliers; simple treatment of levers, inclined plane, pulley system and gears showing the utility of each type of machine.
(iii) Work, energy, power, and their relation with force (simple numerical problems included).
(iv) Different types of energy (e.g., chemical energy, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, elastic energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy, sound energy, light energy).
(v) Principle of conservation of energy.

### 2. Fluids

(i) Transmission of pressure in liquids; change of pressure with depth (including the formula P=hdg); atmospheric pressure; upthrust.
(ii) Archimedes' Principle; floatation; displacement; relationship with density; determination of relative density of a solid; qualitative description of a hydrometer.

### 3. Light

(i) Refraction of light through a glass block and a triangular prism (no calculations but approximate ray diagrams required); qualitative treatment of simple applications such as real and apparent depth of objects in water, apparent bending of sticks in water.
(ii) Total internal reflection in triangular glass prisms and a comparison with reflection from a plane mirror (qualitative only).
(iii) Lenses (converging and diverging) including characteristics of the images formed (using ray diagrams only); magnifying glass; location of images using ray diagrams and thereby determining magnification (sign convention and problems using the lens formulae are excluded).
(iv) Single lens model of a photographic camera; focusing; shutter speed; aperture (f-number); simple comparison with the human eye (correction of defects of the eye are not included in the Physics syllabus, but are included in the Biology syllabus).
(v) Using a triangular prism to produce a spectrum from white light; relationship with wavelength or frequency; simple treatment of the electromagnetic spectrum; primary and secondary colours of light; filters and reflections of coloured light; appearance of objects in different coloured lights; difference between spectral and pigment colours (mention must be made why colour disc with VIBGYOR colours does not appear white when spun).

### 4. Sound

(1) Echoes; their use by bats, dolphins, fishing boats; simple numerical problems on echoes.
(ii) Forced and natural vibrations and resonance (through examples); qualitative description of tuning forks, stringed instruments, drums and bells producing sounds.
(iii) Loudness, pitch and quality of sound; difference between music and noise (overtones, harmonics, nodes and anti-nodes are excluded).

### 5. Electricity and Magnetism

(i) Ohm's Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; internal resistance of cells; cells in series and parallel; resistances in series and parallel; simple direct problems using combinations of resistors in circuits.
(ii) Electrical power and energy; household consumption of electrical energy (simple problems based on electricity bill calculations).
(iii) Household circuits - ring main circuit; switches; fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; colour coding of wires.
(iv) Magnetic effect of a current (principles only, laws not required); electromagnet; demagnetising a magnet using AC; simple treatment of a moving coil galvanometer (shunting excluded); DC electric bell; DC motor; AC generator; transformer (only qualitative description of the devices is required).

### 6. Heat

(i) Specific heat capacities; simple determination and problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of mixtures.
(ii) Latent heat; its determination for ice and steam only (including simple problems); common phenomenon involving specific heat capacity and latent heat.

### 7. Modern Physics

(i) Thermionic emission and a simple qualitative treatment of a hot cathode ray tube.
(ii) Radioactivity and change in the nucleus; the nature of alpha and beta particles and gamma rays (problems on half life excluded); carbon- 14 dating (principle only); background radiation and safety precautions.