Three weeks, 9 Lessons ( 40 minute each lesson ) on Transferring Energy by Heating
Students: 56 (Grade 9)
Level: IGCSE Coordinated Science Double Award Physics
Teaching Aids & Outline
Styrofoam cups, 10 thermometers (mercury and alcohol),
digital thermometers, kettle, ice cubes, three beakers
(containing hot, warm and cold water), sheet;
Multimedia lab with Internet facility for all the
and the teacher,
Video for 20² to show real-time studies, ‘Keeping warm’
and ‘Keeping cool’;
Main Experiment &
Metal sample, thread, Retort stand with 2 clamps,
styrofoam cup, thermometer, cloth, tissue paper, measuring
cylinder (250 ml), beaker, stirrer, balance, Bunsen burner
with tripod, gauze and heat mat, lighter, water;
Heat Transfer and
Circus of 15 demo-experiments (5 for conduction, 5 for
convection and 5 for radiation; (some ideas from Grade 7)
Guiding learning &
Simple numerical and application of these principles
OHP to summarize key ideas in this topic, and
Return tests, further study and presentation by students
Aims and objectives
enable the students to clearly distinguish between ‘heat’ and
appreciate that heat is calculated in terms of the temperature rise it
apply the ideas of kinetic theory to explain temperature and change of
understand the issues involved in relying entirely on our senses,
observe the errors in the recording of data (temperature, mass, time,
trace historically the evolution of the concept of heat from the caloric
encourage proper use of the Internet,
recognize the 3 modes of heat transfer, conduction, convection &
introduce the concept of specific heat capacity,
recognize and relate to apparatus provided,
calculate the specific heat capacity of a substance,
verify the principle of the method of mixtures (calorimetry)
experimentally determine the specific heat capacity of a metal,
analyze the results obtained,
develop appropriate experimental skills,
relate real-life with laboratory situations,
enhance retention of the concept of specific heat capacity
evaluate learning of the concept, and
provide adequate motivation for follow up.
Unit P6 TRANSFERRING ENERGY BY HEATING
A simple account of the equation Q = m.c.Δθ
Where Q = heat energy in J, m = mass in kg, c = specific
heat capacity in J/(kg0C), and
Δθ = change in temperature in 0C
make them understand this concept of CHANGE in temperature affecting heat
use the formula Q = m.c.Δθ in the experiment to determine the
specific heat capacity,
apply the formula Q = m.c.Δθ in new situations.
concept that heat energy calculations require the CHANGE in temperature
and NOT the final temperature,
initial temperature of the metal cube is the temperature of boiling
water, and final temperature of the cube is the same as the water after
the solid has been added,
in making one of the four quantities the subject of the equation,
Q = m.c.Δθ.
Suggested procedural details
Introduction & gaining attention
the students to keywords to inform them of aims and objectives in studying
out a simple experiment to see how our senses cannot be relied on to
one hand says it is hot, the other hand says it is cold.
are more reliable but even they cannot be depended on totally, because 5
thermometers in melting ice show different readings between themselves,
similar to 5 thermometers in hot water.
this to speak about the need to calibrate a thermometer.
them for the following lesson in the multimedia lab.
Guidance and Motivation
the URL: http://www.innathansworld.com
and then go to the physics link.
the need to use advance organizers, and show them where they can find the
link for the relevant page numbers in their textbook, impending tests, and
examination in May.
them the link http://www.innathansworld.com/physics/thumbnailheat.htm,
and guide them to the thumbnail links online related to the experiment
that they are going to carry out in the following lesson,
go over the results by looking at the readings enlarged on the screen
using the projector connected to the PC.
the impending experiment for the following lesson.
them the link http://www.innathansworld.com/physics/links.htm,
and access the 7th link to the Scientific American for the
is the current scientific thinking on cold fusion?
the students to print out at home the review for the following lesson and
come with tentative answers.
of theories of heat and introduction to the notion of ‘cold fusion’
developed by chemists Pons and
Fleishmann in 1989.
NB: ‘Cold fusion’ is
still in the news. E-mail the article “A Practical Way to Make Power From
Wasted Heat” in the New York Times of Tuesday November 27, 2001. (Brief
summary: Scientists at M.I.T. and a small company in Salt Lake City will
announce that they have developed technology that can efficiently and
inexpensively transform heat pollution into electricity.
on ‘Keeping warm’
Main Experiment and Present Stimulus
of specific heat capacity – comparison with inertial of motion and
therefore referring to it as ‘heat inertia’.
as it is difficult to move a heavy object, it is difficult to change the
TEMPERATURE of an object with a high specific heat capacity.
values for this value of specific heat capacity for water and compare it
with other substances.
if they know what other constants for water are such as density, and so
and prepare them for the next lesson on the experiment to carry out the
specific heat capacity of a metal sample.
down the principle of the method of mixtures for the experiment on
determination of the specific heat capacity.
out the EXPERIMENT to determine the specific heat capacity (as
outlined in the
Guiding learning and Eliciting Performance
out simple numerical and allow time to CHECK UNDERSTANDING of the students
about specific heat capacity and its applications.
Heat Transfer and Stimulate Recall
of 15 experiments ( 5 each for convection, conduction and radiation)
to summarize key ideas in this topic for further REINFORCEMENT, with
sentence completion and questions from text, and review key ideas for
Providing feedback and promoting transfer
test paper after answer scripts have been returned.
ideas for further study.
transfer by initiating the idea of student presentation henceforth.
TOTAL 360 minutes
for background reading and experiment
Results on the sentence completion
of the students.
Results on their test for Unit P6
‘Transferring energy by heating’.
Analyze results of the test and evaluate the learning.
To summarize, the lesson plans outlined above have used the
nine events for Instruction developed by Gagne has been a background for the
development of the lessons. The nine events are
Informing learner of aims and objectives
Enhancing retention, and finally
The students by being given not only specific tasks to
complete have been tested and provided with some feedback. By leaving it
open-ended, and asking them to be able to teach and present something to the
rest of their class promotes significant transfer. This is very useful because
students must be given an opportunity to continue exploring the resources
available in books, online such as those illustrated in the Physics links and
experience the connection of physics with their daily life.