CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
know
that there is a relationship between the extension of a spring and the
force applied to it. 
be
able to calculate the turning effect (moment) of a force 
understand
that the strength of solids derives from the forces between their
constituent atoms and molecules. 
know
that for a body in equilibrium both forces and their turning effects must
balance 
appreciate
the springlike nature of these forces by comparing the behaviour of
materials under tension and compression with the behaviour of springs 
understand
the difference between vector and scalar quantities 
understand
that equal and opposite forces acting on the same body may have a turning
effect 
be
able to add two vector quantities by graphical representation to produce a
resultant 
appreciate
that the choice of materials for a particular use depends upon the
materials’ properties 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
the meaning of the phrase kinetic theory of matter as describing a
model for matter in terms of particles (atoms and molecules) in motion 
know
the relationship between pressure and temperature for a gas and understand
how this leads to the Kelvin scale of temperature 
appreciate
that there is a connection between the temperature of an object and the
movement of its particles 
be
able to use and describe the displacement method to find the density of an
irregularly shaped solid 
appreciate
that the three states of matter can be understood in terms of
intermolecular and interatomic forces and the motion of the atoms and
molecules 

be
able to describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and a
regularly shaped solid and know that density = mass/volume 

be able to describe the process of evaporation in terms of the kinetic theory 

know
the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas and understand
how the relationship may be predicted by the kinetic theory 

be
able to describe qualitatively the effect of a change in temperature on
the volume of a gas 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
the meaning of the terms speed and acceleration 
understand
how distances traveled can be derived from the area under a speedtime
graph. 
appreciate
the existence of errors in measurements and understand how these may be
reduced by taking the average of a number of readings 
be
able to use the relationships v=at and s=^{1}/_{2} at^{2}
when applied to an object accelerating uniformly from rest 
understand
the relationships between distance, time, speed and acceleration, and
appreciate how graphs may be
used to display these relationships 
understand
the difference between speed and velocity 
appreciate
how the ideas of speed and acceleration can be applied to transport (e.g.
road, rail etc.) 
appreciate
that a body may accelerate by change in velocity, but without a change in
speed. 
CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
know
that force is measured in newtons. 
know
the relationship between force, mass and acceleration given by the
equation F=ma 
understand
that unbalanced forces change motion and that in the absence of an
unbalanced force, an object will either remain at rest or travel with a
constant velocity. 
_be
able to use the relationship F=ma in simple problems 
appreciate
that friction often provides an opposing force on moving bodies. 

appreciate
qualitatively that the acceleration of
a body depends both on its mass and on the size of the unbalanced force
acting on it 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
–appreciate
that when change takes place, energy is transferred. 
appreciate
that heat engines cannot function without transferring substantial amounts
of energy to the surroundings. 
know
that work measured as force x distance moved, is a measure of energy
transfer 
know
that hydraulic systems are force multipliers and describe everyday
applications of hydraulic systems (car braking systems and hydraulic
jacks) 
understand
that liquids can be used to send forces when they are required 

know
that pressure is related to the size of the force and the area over which
the force acts. 

be
able to use the relationship pressure=force/area 

understand
that power is the rate at which energy is transferred 

appreciate
that there is an energy cost in making this happen 

appreciate
that machines are devices enabling the transfer of energy, but that the
energy cost of doing a job is still at least the same as if the job were
to be done without the help of a machine (and will certainly be greater
than that) 

understand
that engines are devices for transferring energy from fuels to enable
forceusing jobs to be done 

appreciate
that the use of machines and engines always means some wastage of energy. 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
that ‘heating’ is a mode of energy
transfer 
know
and be able to make simple calculations using the relationship: energy
transferred (J)=mass (kg) x specific heating capacity (J/kg ^{0}C
x temperature rise ( ^{0}C) 
know
the meaning of the terms conduction, convection and radiation 
be
able to apply the concept of energy conservation in a variety of energy
transfer process 
appreciate
that, unlike work, heating as a mode of energy transfer is not measured
directly, but in terms of the rise in temperature it can produce. 

appreciate
that energy may be transferred to a substance in changing it from solid to
liquid or liquid to gas without raising its temperature 

understand
the meaning of the term specific heating capacity 

understand
the meaning and implications of the phrase conservation of energy 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
appreciate
the need for a complete circuit when making use of electricity 
understand
that the readings on ammeters in simple and branching circuits conform to
the idea that the behaviour of electricity in a circuit is analogous to
the behaviour of, for example, currents of liquids in pipes. 
appreciate
that energy can be transferred by an electric current and that the current
can be read by an ammeter 

be
able to apply some of these ideas to the safe use of electricity 

know
that an electric current is a flow of electric charge 

know
that electric charge is measured in coulombs and that a flow rate of one coulomb per second is called one
ampere 

appreciate
that electric charge produced by friction is the same change which moving
around a circuit, produces an electric current 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
that the ‘voltage’ of an electrical supply is a measure of the energy
it can transfer from an electrical supply elsewhere, and that it can be
measured with a voltmeter. 
be
able to apply the idea of voltage numerically to circuits containing more
than one component, and apply correctly the term potential difference. 
be
able to correctly draw circuit diagrams containing a voltmeter. 
know
that a potential difference of one volt is equivalent to an energy
difference of one joule per coulomb of charge 
be
able to use the relationship: power=voltage x current 
appreciate
the experimental evidence leading to Ohm’s Law 
understand
the meaning of the term electrical resistance and know that the
resistance of a component (in ohms)= voltage across component/current
through component 
be
able to work out the combined resistance of two resistors in parallel 
be
able to work out the combined resistance of two resistors in series. 

appreciate
the factors affecting the resistance of a component: length of wire,
temperature of wire, cross section of wire 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
that a wave is a means of transferring energy without transferring matter. 
know
the meaning of the term wavefront 
understand
that energy is transferred in the direction in which the wave travels 
know
and be able to use the equation: wave speed=wave length
x frequency in simple applications 
know
the meaning of the terms wave length, amplitude, frequency and
wave speed 

be
able to distinguish between transverse and longitudinal
waves and appreciate the circumstances in which either or both might
occur. 

appreciate
the way a wave can be reflected off a plane barrier. 

appreciate
the way in which a wave can change direction as its speed changes. 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
the basic properties of reflection and refraction as they
apply to light and sound 
be
able to state the approximate frequencies over which human hearing takes
place 
understand
how the refraction of light by a lens can lead to the formation of real
images. 

appreciate
how reflection and refraction properties can be applied to understand the
transmission of light down an optical fibre. 

appreciate
how sound levels can be measured and appreciate the desirability of
reducing noise levels yet recognize the
problems involved in doing this. 

know
that there is limited range of frequencies over which hearing takes place 

appreciate
the importance of communication systems in the modern world 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
that wave motion is a useful way of describing and explaining the
behaviour of light and sound 
understand
that diffraction and the speed of light in glass, in relation to that in
air, are some evidence for the wave nature of light 
understand
how a prism can be used to split white light into its component colours. 
appreciate
how energy can be transferred from waves and how it is possible to be
selective in making that transfer 
appreciate
the nature of colour vision in terms of primary and secondary colours 
appreciate
that earthquakes involve the passage of waves through the earth 
be
able to identify wavelength with colour in light 

appreciate
that light is a part of a wide band of wavelengths called the
electromagnetic spectrum 

be
able to associate the terms radio, microwave, infrared, ultraviolet
and Xrays with the appropriate parts of the electromagnetic
spectrum and know some of the uses to which these parts of the spectrum
are put 

know
how sound can be transmitted through air as a wave 

be
able to relate the loudness and pitch of a sound to the amplitude and
frequency of the sound wave 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
the meaning of the terms kinetic energy and momentum 
be
able to use kinetic energy and momentum to solve simple, quantitative
problems involving force, motion and recoil. 
be
able to find both the kinetic energy and momentum of a moving body from a
knowledge of its mass and velocity 
appreciate
that, in collisions between objects, their total momentum is unchanged
(‘conservation of momentum’) 
be
able to use kinetic energy to solve simple, qualitative problems involving
force and motion 

be
able to use momentum in simple, qualitative problems involving force and
motion 

understand
the way the concepts of kinetic energy and momentum can be applied in
simple everyday situations 

appreciate
the relationship between the transfer of energy to a gas by heating and
the rise in temperature, and the increase in the kinetic energy of its
particles 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
appreciate
that gravity is a force which acts between bodies even though they are not
in contact 
appreciate
why it is possible for objects to orbit the Earth without falling to its
surface 
know
that the Earth is the source of a gravitational field 

understand
the part air resistance plays in the way objects fall when close to the
Earth’s surface 

appreciate
the distinction between mass and weight 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
know
that magnetic materials have the ability to attract some materials but to
attract and repel each other 
understand
that an electric current can be induced in a wire moving relative to a
magnetic field 
understand
the meaning of the term magnetic field and know that the Earth is
surrounded by one 
be
able to apply this idea to understand the working of dynamos and
alternators 
know
that forces can act on an
electric current when in a magnetic field. 

know
that the force on an electric current in a magnetic field is at right
angles to the direction of the current and the field 

be
able to apply these ideas in understanding how an electric motor works 

appreciate
that an electric current itself has a magnetic field and that this can be
applied to the design of electromagnets and relays 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
how. historically, the use of light greatly increased the speed of
communication but that this required the use of a code 
understand
the difference between analogue signals and digital signals and recognize
that the latter require an extension of the idea of a code for
transmitting information 
understand
how the use of electric signals has improved longdistance, high speed
communication even further 
understand
the benefits of digital coding for transmitting information 
be
able to describe the operation of the microphone and earphone and relate
their operation to basic physical principles 
be
able to compare the operation of the telephone system with radio
communication, including the need for modulation of a carrier wave 
CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
appreciate
that the behaviour of the thermionic diode can be interpreted in terms of
negativelycharged particles given off from a heated tungsten wire. 
appreciate
that a flow of negatively charged particles (electrons) is the best
solution in explaining the behaviour of a thermionic diode 
recognise
that the electron, as a basic component of the atom, could be the particle
carrying an electric current in a thermionic diode and also the particle
responsible for carrying charge round an electric circuit 
understand
how charges produced by friction can be understood in terms of an electron
transfer 
understand
how the production of electrons from a heated wire has led to the
cathoderay oscilloscope and the possibility of television 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
appreciate
that radiations from radioactive materials are capable of breaking up
other atoms and molecules 
appreciate
the link between ionization and electric charge 
understand
the meaning of the term ionising radiation 
be
able to relate radioactivity to the structure of an atom 
know
how radioactivity may be detected and measured 
appreciate
the idea of randomness in the decay process and relate this to halflife 
understand
the meaning of the term background radiation 

appreciate
why radioactivity can be dangerous to living things but be able to put
these hazards into perspective 

appreciate
the differences between alpha, beta, and gamma radiations 

appreciate
some of the uses to which radioactivity has been put 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
the meaning of the term efficiency when it is applies to energy
transfer process 

appreciate
the necessity of finding an alternative to fossil fuels in the near future 

understand
how energy may be released from the nuclei of atoms by both nuclear
fission and nuclear fusion 

appreciate
some of the problems involved in the use of nuclear fission as an energy
resource 

understand
that there are alternative (renewable) energy resources, but understand
that no single renewable energy source is likely to act as a total
replacement for present energy resources 

appreciate
that greater efficiency in the use of energy can be as helpful as finding
alternative sources 

CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
that energy can be transferred from fuels to electricity by dynamos 
be
able to describe the work of a transformer in terms of the currents
induced by changing magnetic fields 
appreciate
the problems involved in the electrical transmission of energy 
be
able to use the equation_{ }V_{p/}V_{s}=N_{p}/N_{s} 
understand
the importance of transformers in the electrical transmission of energy 
appreciate
the possible advantages of other methods of distributing energy, including
the use of petrol for cars and the use of hydraulics 
CORE 
SUPPLEMENT 
All
students should: 
In
addition to what is required in the Core, students following the Extended
curriculum should: 
understand
that electronics is an extension of the study of electricity 
appreciate
that integrated circuits, called microprocessors, are the control units of
many devices in everyday use 
appreciate
that a knowledge of changes in resistance can be used to produce detectors
which can respond to changes in the environment 
appreciate
how AND, NOT and OR gates are used 
understand
how a reed relay can be used to operate devices which need larger currents
than detectors can pass 

appreciate
how electronics can be used to solve simple problems in everyday life 
